Part of Hinduism. Introduced 400 BCE.
Saivism is the form of Hindu devotion that identifies Shiva ('creator, destroyer and preserver of worlds') as supreme being. The Svetasvatara Upanisad, written around 400 BCE, was the first text to identify Shiva as being synonymous with the Absolute, and a community of Saivite monks, the Pasupatas (whose name means Lord, soul, bondage, referring to the threefold nature of Siva), existed by the 3rd Century CE.
'Saivism' and 'Siva' in The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, ed. by John Bowker (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997).